DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.


The Science of Fear : Why We Fear the Things We Shouldn't--and Put Ourselves in Greater 


     by Gardner, Daniel

This book goes into why we process fears the way we do.  I plan to use this book as a 

theory source and use it to examine the Joker's actions in the Dark Knight and in the 

latest Joker comic book.  I expect to find that after 9/11, American's number one fear 

became terrorism.


The American Drug Panic of the 1980s

Erich Goode & Nachman Ben-Yehuda

Chapter 12 of Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance

          ©1994 by the authors, published by Blackwell.


This chapter of the book talks about America's fear of drugs in the 1980s.  According to 

Goode, in 1986, Drug abuse was placed in the top 4 major american social problems.  I 

plan to use this book as a fact source to explain why the Joker used drugs in the 1980s 

film to terrorize people, since this is what people feared.


the web site for this source is: www.druglibrary.org...



One of my sources is the old Batman show with Caesar Romero as the

Joker.  I'm a little confused about how to write a bibliographical info

for it, so here is the web site:


I plan to use this clip to show how the Joker at this point is not a

insane killer, just an eccentric crook.  He actually shows concern

about killing innocent lives in this clip.


My other source is on the Comic Code Authority.



This site gives the rules for the comics during 1954.  Many of these

rules require the Joker to be a clown not a killer.

   Rule 7 forbids excessive violence and rule 5 states that "Criminals

shall not be presented so as to be rendered glamorous or to occupy a

position which creates the desire for emulation."

The Joker breaks many of these rules.


Title: The Dark Knight 

Director:Christopher Nolan 

Distributer: Warner Brothers Pictures 

DC comics 

Year: 2008 


    In the Dark Knight Heath Ledger transforms the Joker into a living representation of America?s fear of terrorism.  I plan to use this DVD to show how Joker has become a the personification of what Americans fear.  With Jack Nicholson in the 1980?s, it was drugs.  Now in 2008 after 9/11, it is the fear of terrorism. 



Title: ?The Joker?s Crime Costumes.? The Greatest Joker Stories Ever Told 

Author: Mike Gold 

Publisher: DC Comics, New York 

Year: 1988 


    This comic shows the Joker in his second stage, where he only commits robberies that are themed after comedic characters, like Falstaf.  I plan to use this comic to show how the Joker went from a killing machine to an entertainer. 



Title: ?The Joker?s Five Way Revenge? The Greatest Joker Stories Ever Told 

Author: Denny O?neil 

Publisher and City: Paul Levitz, New York, NY 

Year of Publication: 1988 


    This comic shows the Joker transitioning into his third stage.  He returns to his roots and kills people and does not commit ludicrous robberies.  He is a psychopathic killer.  In this particular comic, he hangs a man, kills two others with his joker venom.  When he is about to drop the old man in the wheelchair into a tank of water he says to the Batman, ?But don?t worry!  I?m not mean! He won?t drown--No, he?ll be a meal for the shark I found half dead on the beach!? (GJSET, 179-180)  He then offers to let the old man go, if Batman will sacrifice himself to feed the shark.  Once the Batman is in the tank, Joker kicks the old man into the tank as well saying ?for dessert, sharky can have Hooley [the old man]? (GJSET, 181).  Batman says that The Joker promised to let Hooley go, to which the Joker responds ?I?m a notorious liar!? (GJSET, 181).  Joker has returned to his deadly past. 



Title: The Killing Joke 

Author: Alan Moore 

Publisher and City:  DC Comics, New York 

Year of Publication: 1988 


    This comic involves the Joker trying to prove that all it takes is one rotten day to turn the sanest man alive into someone as crazy as the Joker.  He kidnaps Commissioner Gordon and shots his daughter Barbra in front of Gordon.  Joker then forces the Commissioner to look at his daughter stripped naked and lying on the floor bleeding.  To add to the carnage, the Joker?s bullet went through Barbra?s spine, crippling her.  This Joker has completely given up comedic robberies and is a twisted homicidal maniac. 


Title: The Greatest Joker Stories Ever Told; An Introduction by Mike Gold

Author: Mike Gold

Publisher & City: Paul Levitz, New York, NY

Year of Publication: 1988


I plan to use this source as an argument and fact source, since it

gives details on the three stages of the Joker's career.



DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.