DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Rachel Pearson

Theodora Goss

WR100

December 4, 2011

The Petals of Dorian Gray

Other than the fight for liberty, equality, and fraternity, the people of prerevolutionary France planted a seed for a more gentle movement: The language of flowers. A widely popular communication tactic in the Victorian era, the language of flowers applies meanings and emotions to individual flowers that, when combined, produce a hidden message for the intended receiver. A gentleman would fashion a “tussie mussie” or bouquet out of an assortment of flora, combining into an overall message. A bouquet consisting of balm, which represents sympathy, and purple verbena, which represents regret, could be an apology derived from sympathy for hardship and regret for the causing of that hardship. Although Oscar Wilde’s novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, is said to preach the message “art for art’s sake,” Wilde uses the Victorian language of flowers in his novel. He implements this secretive communication tactic in two ways: to describe characters and set up or hint at future scenes.

When Oscar Wilde uses a specific flower to describe a character, that flower is mentioned in the same or in surrounding sentences as the character being described. For instance, in the first chapter Wilde introduces two of the main characters in his novel: Basil Hallward, a young artist, and Lord Henry Wotton, an influential and devious aristocrat.  First, Wilde drapes Hallward’s studio, an extension of the artist himself, in roses. Although it seems as though this is a purely superficial aesthetic aspect, the roses reveal Hallward’s character. Roses, in the Victorian era and even today, represent love. By associating roses with Hallward, Wilde attempts to further disclose Basil’s amorous nature. The presence of roses illustrates Basil’s initial capacity for love. Within the same page, Wilde introduces Lord Henry Wotton, an influential and hypocritical character throughout the novel. Next to Wotton and within the same sentence, Wilde places a yellow laburnum, a poisonous plant synonymous with the word forsaken. Recipients of laburnums should be fearful due to the negative connotation, which suggests that the recipient is or should be abandoned by society. Wilde includes a laburnum in the initial appearance of Wotton to symbolize his poisonous effects and how some higher societal circles, due to his poisonous tongue and ideas, forsake him.

Although the use of the language of flowers is significant, its absence holds meaning as well. Only Dorian Gray and Sybil Vane, shallow and aesthetically pleasing individuals, are described more than once as having “flower-like” traits. Although basil means both love and hate in the language, it symbolizes Gray’s dual views of Hallward and not the artist himself. Once, Lord Henry Wotton is described as having “flower-like hands” (Wilde, 24), however this is because Wotton uses his hands to deceive his listeners. His personality is never directly described as in this way, while the author describes Sybil and Dorian using the phrase, “flower-like,” multiple times. This is because, in the manner of the language of flowers, their beauty deceives and hides their true nature. To Dorian, Sybil is nothing but a flower, and he values her for the fabricated beauty she presents on stage. Gray describes her to Wotton as a “girl, hardly seventeen years of age, with a little, flower-like face” (Wilde, 54). In the first describing sentence wherein she is introduced to the reader, Wilde makes her synonymous with a flower. However, “flower-like” traits are not prescribed to her when she experienced real love and could not act, but are present when she is acting or behaving in a fanciful manner.

Unlike Sybil, when Dorian Gray first makes a physical entrance in the story, he is not described directly as possessing “flower-like” traits. It is only after Wotton’s influence that he becomes flora in the Victorian language of flowers. Before Wotton’s influence, Gray is open and innocent; afterwards his beautiful face diverges from his ugly actions. Coincidently, the more divided Dorian becomes, the more he is compared to flowers or as being “flower-like.” This instance along with Sybil Vane’s show that there is a direct correlation between a character’s superficiality and “flower-like” traits.

Oscar Wilde also uses the language of flowers in order to set a specific scene or foreshadow certain events. In the same scene wherein Basil Hallward is introduced to the reader, the sweet scent of lilac wafts through the studio from the garden, combining its perfume with that of the roses (Wilde, 5). Lilac is associated with the “first emotions of love” (Diffenbaugh). The lilac “coming in from the garden” foreshadows the entrance of Dorian and Basil’s developing, unrequited love for Dorian Gray. After Wotton begins working his poisonous influence on Gray regarding the matters of temptation, Wilde mentions lilacs again. Overwhelmed with the allure of Wotton’s ideology, Gray runs into the garden and buries his face in great, cool lilac blossoms (Wilde, 24). Wotton, following Gray’s footsteps, approves of his action and remarks, “Nothing can cure the soul but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul” (Wilde, 24). This remark further nudges Dorian down the path of temptation. Dorian burying his head in the lilacs shows his acceptance of this philosophy by seeking solace in the lilacs, which are symbolically his “stirrings of love” (Diffenbaugh) for Wotton’s ideas. This scene foreshadows Gray’s eventual love of the “senses” or “temptations.”

Before Dorian Gray makes a physical appearance, Lord Henry Wotton describes him as being made out of “ivory and rose-leaves” and states, “he is a Narcissus” (Wilde 7). Here, Gray is compared to two flowers, the rose and the narcissus. The rose symbolizes love, although in this sentence it implies Gray is more of a body of love because Wotton is describing physical attributes. However, announcing him as a narcissus describes and foreshadows Dorian Gray’s character. Paralleling the Greek myth in which the flower was born, the narcissus symbolizes self-love. Gray eventually sells his soul due to urgings of superficial self-love. Before Gray is physically present and aware of self-love, Wilde hints at his tragic flaw using the narcissus and language of flowers.

Later on in the same chapter, Hallward and Wotton retreat into the garden. Almost immediately, Hallward divulges the origin of his privacy of the portrait of Gray, while Wotton, listening intently, plucks a daisy from the earth (Wilde 9). Here, Hallward subtly hints at a more romantic inclination for Dorian rather than the relationship between painter and subject. Wotton plucks the daisy just before Hallward describes his first sighting of Gray, and shreds it prior to Hallward’s description of physically meeting Gray. Hallward describes his first sighting of Gray in a way that implies a kindling of romantic admiration. He states, “When our eyes met, I felt that I was growing pale…I knew that I had come face to face with some one whose mere personality was so fascinating that…it would absorb my whole nature, my whole soul, my very art itself  (Wilde 10). This description is not casual commentary, but a romantic revelation.

 Also, before revealing Hallward’s confession, Wilde places the two characters near a lilac-bush. As it sways to and fro, “Lord Henry felt as if he could hear Basil Hallward’s heart beating, and wondered what was coming” (Wilde, 10). Since lilac represents the “stirring of love” (Diffenbaugh), and the lilac bush, along with Hallward’s heart, is stirring, the language of flowers further supports and reveals Hallward’s homosexual inclinations. Wotton plucking a daisy, a symbol for innocence, before Hallward’s unintentional confession and subsequently shredding the daisy indicates the destruction of Hallward’s innocence. Before meeting Gray, Hallward was the perfect Victorian era artistic gentleman, however, his love for Gray shreds his innocence with the shears of homosexuality: A sin in the Victorian era. Thus, Wilde uses the daisy to slyly introduce Basil Hallward’s homosexual nature.

Another situation wherein the language of flowers aids understanding is the events surrounding the death of Basil Hallward. When Hallward finally sees his corrupt creation, Dorian “had taken the flower out of his coat and was smelling it, or pretending to do so” (Wilde, 154). Throughout the novel, Gray is described as having flower-like traits. However, the simultaneous unveiling of his portrait and Gray’s possession of the flower seems to suggest that Gray is a Victorian flower: He has external beauty but a hidden side as well. After Basil’s death, Gray summons a one-time friend to aid in disposal of the body. In order to get his servant out of the way, Gray commands him to “See Harden personally, and tell him to send twice as many orchids as I ordered, and to have as few white ones as possible. In fact, I don’t want any white ones” (Wilde, 170). Here, wild implements the language of flowers to send a final goodbye to Basil and Dorian’s beauty and sophistication. In the Victorian era, white orchids symbolize love, beauty, refinement, and purity (Harten). Gray’s request for anything but white orchids is symbolic of his loss of these four qualities in the climax of the story. With the death of Basil, Gray loses the one true love in his life.

In his act of killing his best friend, the beauty in his portrait is further sullied. He has fallen into the realm of the lower-class criminal with the act of murder, destroying his refinement. Before this act, the reader never travelled with Gray to the East End opium dens, but afterwards the reader accompanies him on the corrupt journeys that were previously only implied. Finally, the blood on his hands has robbed him his purity. Murder was the final act that labels his a resolute criminal instead of simply a wayward gentleman. When Dorian states he does not want white orchids, it shows the depths of his corruption and further explains the significance of Basil’s death through the analysis of the meaning of white orchids.

Throughout these key scenes in the novel, Oscar Wilde employs the language of flowers to insert an additional layer of understanding to characters and scenes. Despite these previously described circumstances, there are many other minor and major moments wherein the language of flowers is exercised. Due to this exorbitant amount of supporting examples, it is easy to conclude that Oscar Wilde purposefully incorporates the Victorian language of flowers into his novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, to either further illustrate characters or describe scenes and foreshadow events. In Victorian England, the meanings that comprise the language of flowers, although varied in some cases, were common knowledge in that time period. It is safe to assume that Oscar Wilde was aware of the language as well as its practices because of his status and its popularity. It is this popularity that also leads to the safe assumption that other authors of this time period would have had knowledge of this social practice. Therefore, it is possible that other authors besides Oscar Wilde could have incorporated this symbolism into their novels. Delineating these definitions could lead to further understanding of other Victorian literature, as it aided the reader in The Picture of Dorian Gray.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Bryant, Katherine. "Language of Flowers: Bachelor's Button through Butterfly Weed."

Comcast.net: Personal Web Pages. 16 Sept. 2002. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://home.comcast.net/~bryant.katherine/flowb.html>.

 

 

Diffenbaugh, Vanessa. "Flower Dictionary | The Language of Flowers." Random House –

Bringing You the Best in Fiction, Nonfiction, and Children's Books. Random House. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/features/vanessa_diffenbaugh //flower-dictionary/>.

 

"Flower Meanings and Meanings of Flowers." Florists, Send Flowers Online, Delivery, Funeral,

Wedding, Gifts, Photos, Mother's Day, Easter, Roses, Flowers for Girlfriend, Men. Aboutflowers.com. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://aboutflowers.com/flower-a-plant-information-and-photos/meanings-of-flowers.html>.

 

Harten, Chrissie. "THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS." «« A FLOWER ARRANGER'S GARDEN

FLOWER ARRANGING AND GARDENING »». Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.thegardener.btinternet.co.uk/flowerlanguage.html>.

 

"Meaning of Flowers Symbolic Language Herbs Trees Plants." Old Farmers Almanac: Weather

Forecasts Gardening Moon Calendar Recipes. Old Farmers Almanac. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://www.almanac.com/content/meaning-flowers>.

 

"The History and Language of FLOWERS and Herbs - Origins and Meanings!" Online

Shopping, It's Victorian Bazaar's Boutique- Recapture the Romance of an Era Gone By... Victorian Bazaar. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.<http://www.victorianbazaar.com/meanings.html>.

 

Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Ed. Andrew Elfenbein. Pearson Education, 2007.

Print.

 

 

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Rachel Pearson

Theodora Goss

WR100

November 28, 2011

 

(No conclusion or intro)Rough Draft

            Although Oscar Wilde uses a descriptive style, specific details of scenes in The Picture of Dorian Gray, especially that of the vegetation, contain deeper, explanatory meanings rather than simple embellishments.

            Other than the fight for liberty, equality, and fraternity, the people of prerevolutionary France planted a seed for a more gentle movement: The language of flowers. This reinvented form of communication used flora rather than more traditional methods. Instead of arranging words and phrases to show love, beaus would arrange flowers and herbs. Due to its discreet code, Victorian England society quickly adopted the language to avoid potentially scandalous situations. A gentleman would fashion a “tussie mussie” or bouquet out of an assortment of flora, combining into an overall message. A bouquet consisting of balm, which represents sympathy, and purple verbena, which represents regret, could be an apology derived from sympathy for hardship and regret for the causing of that hardship. Unfortunately the language often leaves a lot to be lost in translation. Since there is no official assignment of a meaning to each object, the message is left open to uncertain interpretation. As a way to remedy this flaw, publications such as Le Langage des Fleurs by Charlotte de la Tour and John Ingram's Flora Symbolica began to emerge and delineate not only flora meanings but also etiquette regarding the making, sending, and receiving of bouquets. These new almanacs allowed a partial standardization of the language and introduced the cryptic codes to print and public. Due to widespread popularity and cultural significance, writers of the Victorian era introduced the language of flowers into novels as metaphors or to frame a scene. One such author who implements the flora is Oscar Wilde in his novel The Portrait of Dorian Gray. Essential chapters in the tale of Dorian Gray, such as the introduction of the main characters, the rise and fall of Sybil Vane, and the death of Basil Hallward, contain flora that not only optically frame the scene and accompanying figures, but further explain current events, foreshadow future events, and touch on controversial, homoerotic nuances.

             In the first chapter, Wilde introduces two of the main characters in his novel: Basil Hallward, a young artist, and Lord Henry Wotton, an influential and devious aristocrat. Wilde drapes Hallward’s studio, and extension of the artist, in hawthorn, lilac, and rose. Although it seems as though a superficial aesthetic aspect, the plants aid in setting the stage for Basil’s personality as well as what is about to occur in the studio. Hawthorn is synonymous with hope, which is a feeling that surrounds Basil in the beginning of the novel. His hope for his artistic career and the potential for Dorian Gray fill his heart and his studio: A place wherein both are destroyed. The sweet scent of lilac wafts through the studio from the garden, combining its perfume with that of the roses (Wilde 5). Lilac is associated with the “first emotions of love” (Diffenbaugh) and the rose is represents love and the heart. The lilac “coming in from the garden” foreshadows the entrance of Dorian. Using lilac, Wilde subtly reinforces the speculation of homoerotic love of Basil for Dorian by associating Dorian’s coming entrance with a flower that signifies the beginnings of love. The scent of the rose permeating the studio could signify the existing love between Hallward and Wotton, but not in a romantic sense.

Interestingly enough, Wilde places a laburnum close to Wotton. The laburnum has heavy, yellow blossoms and is poisonous if ingested. In the Victorian language of flowers, the laburnum means forsaken. Recipients of laburnums should be afraid because of the negative connotation, which suggests that the recipient is or should be abandoned by society. Wilde includes a laburnum in the initial appearance of Wotton to symbolize his poisonous effects and how some higher societal circles, because of his poisonous tongue and ideas, forsake him. Also, Wilde is quoted as being perceived by his own society as Lord Henry Wotton (Goss). In his own society, Wilde is viewed as a dangerous threat to values due to his homoerotic and outspoken tendencies. Using the laburnum in conjunction with Lord Henry Wotton embodies both Wotton’s poisonous aspects, standing in society, and parallelism with Oscar Wilde.

            When Dorian Gray is first introduced to the reader in conversation, Lord Henry Wotton describes him as being made out of “ivory and rose-leaves” and states, “he is a Narcissus” (Wilde 7). Here, Gray is compared to two flowers, the rose and the narcissus. The rose symbolizes love, although in this sentence it implies Gray is more of a body of love because Wotton is describing physical attributes. However, announcing him as a narcissus describes and foreshadows Dorian Gray’s character. Paralleling the Greek myth in which the flower was born, the narcissus symbolizes self-love. Gray eventually sells his soul due to urgings of superficial self-love. Before Gray is physically present and aware of self-love, Wilde hints at his tragic flaw using the narcissus and language of flowers.

Later on in the same chapter, Hallward and Wotton retreat into the garden. Hallward divulges the origin of his privacy of the portrait of Gray, while Wotton, listening intently, plucks a daisy from the earth (Wilde 9). Here, Hallward subtly hints at a more romantic inclination for Dorian rather than the relationship between painter and subject. Wotton plucks the daisy just before Hallward describes his first sighting of Gray, and shreds it prior to Hallward’s description of physically meeting Gray. Hallward describes his first sighting of Gray in a way that implies a kindling of romantic admiration. He states, “When our eyes met, I felt that I was growing pale…I knew that I had come face to face with some one whose mere personality was so fascinating that…it would absorb my whole nature, my whole soul, my very art itself  (Wilde 10). This description is not casual commentary, but a romantic revelation. Also, before revealing Hallward’s confession, Wilde places the two characters near a lilac-bush. As it sways to and fro, “Lord Henry felt as if he could hear Basil Hallward’s heart beating, and wondered what was coming” (Wilde, 10). Since lilac represents the stirring of love, and the lilac bush, along with Hallward’s heart, is stirring, the language of flowers further supports and reveals Hallward’s homosexual inclinations. Wotton plucking a daisy, a symbol for innocence, before Hallward’s unintentional confession and shredding the daisy indicates the destruction of Hallward’s innocence. Before meeting Gray, Hallward was the perfect Victorian era artistic gentleman, however, his love for Gray shreds his innocence with the shears of homosexuality: A sin in the Victorian era. Thus, Wilde uses the daisy to imply Basil Hallward’s homosexual nature.

Another situation wherein the language of flowers aids understanding is the events surrounding the death of Basil Hallward. When Hallward finally sees his corrupt creation, Dorian “had taken the flower out of his coat and was smelling it, or pretending to do so” (Wilde, 154). Throughout the novel, Gray is described as having flower-like traits. However, the simultaneous unveiling of his portrait and Gray’s possession of the flower seems to suggest that Gray is a Victorian flower: He has external beauty but also hidden intentions. After Basil’s death, Gray summons a one-time friend to aid in disposal of the body. In order to get his servant out of the way, Gray commands him to “See Harden personally, and tell him to send twice as many orchids as I ordered, and to have as few white ones as possible. In fact, I don’t want any white ones” (Wilde, 170). Here, wild implements the language of flowers to send a final goodbye to Basil and Dorian’s beauty and sophistication. In the Victorian era, white orchids symbolize love, beauty, refinement, and purity (Harten). Gray’s request for anything but white orchids is symbolic of his loss of these four qualities in the climax of the story. With the death of Basil, Gray loses the one true love in his life. In his act of killing his best friend, the beauty in his portrait is further sullied. He has fallen into the realm of the lower-class criminal with the act of murder, destroying his refinement. Before this act, the reader never travelled with Gray to the East End opium dens, but afterwards the reader accompanies him on the corrupt journeys that were previously only implied. Finally, the blood on his hands has robbed him his purity. Murder was the final act that labels his a resolute criminal instead of simply a wayward gentleman. When Dorian states he does not want white orchids, it shows the depths of his corruption and further explains the significance of Basil’s death through the analysis of the meaning of white orchids.

Although the use of the language of flowers is significant, its absence holds meaning as well. Only Dorian Gray and Sybil Vane, shallow and aesthetically pleasing individuals, are described more than once as having flower-like traits. Although basil means both love and hate in the language, it symbolizes Gray’s dual views of Hallward and not the artist himself. Once, Lord Henry Wotton is described as having “flower-like hands” (Wilde, 24), but it is because it is the aesthetic traits of his voice and hands that deceive his listeners into following his influence. His personality is never directly described as flower-like, while the author describes Sybil and Dorian multiple times in that fashion. This is because, in the fashion of the language of flowers, their beauty deceives who they are and what they represent. Sybil Vane exists for Dorian only when she acts and is herself an act. “Flower-like” traits are not prescribed to her when she experienced real love and could not act, but are present when she is acting or behaving in a fanciful manner. Much like Sybil, when Dorian Gray first makes a physical entrance in the story, he is not described directly as possessing “flower-like” traits. It is only after Wotton’s influence that he becomes flora in the Victorian language of flowers. Before Wotton’s influence, Gray is open and innocent; afterwards his honest face diverges from his dishonest actions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Bryant, Katherine. "Language of Flowers: Bachelor's Button through Butterfly Weed."

Comcast.net: Personal Web Pages. 16 Sept. 2002. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://home.comcast.net/~bryant.katherine/flowb.html>.

 

 

Diffenbaugh, Vanessa. "Flower Dictionary | The Language of Flowers." Random House –

Bringing You the Best in Fiction, Nonfiction, and Children's Books. Random House. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.randomhouse.com/rhpg/features/vanessa_diffenbaugh //flower-dictionary/>.

 

"Flower Meanings and Meanings of Flowers." Florists, Send Flowers Online, Delivery, Funeral,

Wedding, Gifts, Photos, Mother's Day, Easter, Roses, Flowers for Girlfriend, Men. Aboutflowers.com. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://aboutflowers.com/flower-a-plant-information-and-photos/meanings-of-flowers.html>.

 

Harten, Chrissie. "THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS." «« A FLOWER ARRANGER'S GARDEN

FLOWER ARRANGING AND GARDENING »». Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.thegardener.btinternet.co.uk/flowerlanguage.html>.

 

"Meaning of Flowers Symbolic Language Herbs Trees Plants." Old Farmers Almanac: Weather

Forecasts Gardening Moon Calendar Recipes. Old Farmers Almanac. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://www.almanac.com/content/meaning-flowers>.

 

"The History and Language of FLOWERS and Herbs - Origins and Meanings!" Online

Shopping, It's Victorian Bazaar's Boutique- Recapture the Romance of an Era Gone By... Victorian Bazaar. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.<http://www.victorianbazaar.com/meanings.html>.

 

 

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Rachel Pearson

Theodora Goss

WR150

November 24, 2011

Outline/Rough Draft Dorian Gray

Thesis: Although Oscar Wilde uses a descriptive style, specific details of scenes in The Picture of Dorian Gray, especially that of the vegetation, contain deeper, explanatory meanings rather than simple embellishments.

1st Body: Victorian era symbols (language of flowers)

2nd Body: Orchids and the different explanations (flowers in the beginning)

3rd Body: Use is nuance, explains how strengthens (like foreshadowing)

 

pg 5

Basil’s studio

Hawthorn à hope

Lilac à first emotions of love

Rose à love

By Wotton

            Laburnum à poisonous if ingested and a nicotine receptor agonist (forsaken)

            Honeysuckle à bonds of love, generous devoted affection (seemed to make the room more oppressive)

Pg 7

            Describing dorian

            Made of rose-leaves à love

            Narcissus à plant  (also foreshadows)

But beauty, real beauty, ends where an intellectual expression begins

Always be here in winter when no flowers to look at  à HINTING AT PORTRAIT

Pg 9

Henry and basil in garden

            Laurel à perseverance (ambition)

            Daisy à innocence (tremulous) henry plucks “I am quite sure I shall understand it” plucks basils/dorains innocence? Foreshadowing? à pocks the daisy to bits pg 11 as basil meets dorian

Pg 10

Moved to and fro in languid air ( all flowers in bloom).. lord henry felt as if he could hear basil hallward’s heart beating and wondered what was coming à talks about first encounter with Dorian à slyly supports homo intentions in the Victorian way

            Lilac à stirrings of love?

Pg 16

How pleasant it was in the garden! How delightful other peoples emotions were!

            Ivy à friendship

Pg 20

When Dorian is first introduced to the reader (in person) he is not described with flowers, implying that he is just as he is (a piece of beauty) with no deeper meanings/layers. Farthr into the book he surrounded and described like flowers, meaning his outer beauty has an inner meaning (painting). “unspotted from the world”

Pg 22

Henry applies rose-red youth and rose-white boyhood. Although both are pure and innocent meanings describes comparison as beginning of double world/taint. Henry is talking about yielding to temptation

“he was dimly conscious that entirely fresh influences were at work within him”

pg 24

after influence dorian gray buries his fsce in great, cool liliac blossoms à first emotions of love

“nothing can cure the soul but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul”
beginning of love for himself and his temptations?

Henry described as having flower-like hands
pg 26

Henry describing how beauty is important, true

Laburnum

Common hill flower

clematis à art

making life of a flower seem ideal à dorian becomes flower-like and when he does the simple beauty is spoiled by underlying meaning (in flowers it’s the emotion they represent and in dorian it is his sins)

“youth! Youth! There is absolutely nothing in the world but youth!” dorian gray listened, open-eyed and wondering. The spray of lilac fell from hhis hand upon the gravel. Bee on the convolvus à bonds (flower seems to quiver and then swayed gently to an fro) signifies beginnings of bonds ( mind bound to youth) extinguished hopes?

Pear treeà comfort as enter basil’s studio

“heavy scent of roses seemed to brood over everything” in basils studio the part while he makes the cursed portait à love of basil for dorians soul overpowering and embodies self in portrait

pg 58

dorian talking about sibyl. Henry comments “his nature had developed like a flower, had borne blossoms of scarlet flame.”

pg 54,63,67, 88

Sibyl described like a flower her own beauty and own underlying meaning

pg 141 only carnation in book (mom)

pg 154

when basil is revealed to the portrait, dorian “had taken the flower out of his coat, and was smelling it, or pretending to do so. Unveiling of personality? Basil nor henry (other than hands) have never been described as flowers

pg 157

basil dead “leafless trees shook their back iron branches”

pg 161 drew flowers, and bits of architecture, and then human faces

pg 170  “see harden personally, and tell him to send twice as many orchids as I ordered, and to have as few white ones as possible. In fact, I don’t want any white ones.”

            White orchids à love, beauty, refinement

Pg 173 “wearing a large buttonhole on parma violets”

            Violestà modest worth (using as a disguise?) deceive in first paragraph chap 15

 

Basil means love and hatred (dual)?

 

are people described using flowers?

 

aestheticism --> sex as pure/innocent? anti-aestheticism degrading fpower to represent seduction/sin

is dorian a flower?

usse of the language

oscar uses flowers to contradict art for art  H/O bc writing is art or painting a pictur

beauty over aEn

oscar flowers to rep deg 

 

opium? white flower?

 

drugs --> aestheticism --> another way to view the world/ lose the world? 

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.