DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Deep play: notes on the Balinese cockfight- Clifford Geertz

-        The Balinese acted as if these researchers did not exist

-        Bali is an Indonesia island

-        Javanese vs. Balinese

-        Because the couple had run, they become part of the village because instead of showing superiority (showing papers and saying who they were) they became in solidarity with the Balinese.

-        Taking risks when researching and indulging in the culture is the best way to look at a culture- able to get into “peasant mentality” ( p. 4)

-        Outside vs. insider view on culture

-        Cock fights have never been looked into however it is a very popular part of culture- only found out by being PART OF culture- not simply looking in

-        Cockfights show the manliness- they represent the toughest men

-        On page 5 ( right column) it describes a man compared to different cocks to show how manly or unmanly they are

-        The cocks are treated close to human beings- animals are considered part of the devil and children’s teeth are filed, eating is seen as an animal act

-        Pg. 7 ( right column) is man vs. beast, ego vs. ID ( things we learned in social science)

-        2 types of bets: Single axial bet in the center between the principals ( with the owner) vs. the peripheral ones around the ring between members of the audience ( man to  man)( p. 11 gives details of differences b/w the two)

-        I don’t understand what the odd calling of the informal betting is??

-        You have to pay on the spot ( no IOUs) ( p. 13)

-        The more a central bet is, the more likely the match will be even and fair

-        The higher bets try to make the game more deep and interesting. BUT that is not what is actually interesting ( p.15)

-        Bentham’s concept of deep play: doesn’t make sense!! (beginning of page 16)

-        The thing that makes this fighting deep is: the migration of the Balinese status hierocracy into the body of the cockfight**** p. 18

-        More closely to kin- will not go against their cock (19-21) describes statuses and connections in village influence the cockfight

-        Page 22 summarizes very nicely the observations made about actions in different types of cockfights

-        No one’s status changes, no money really gained dramatically by the cockfights…the cockfight is only “really real” to the cocks themselves- not to the people (p. 24)

-        Sentimental education-cockfights –p. 28- the answer to research question??


DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Salma Yehia



Haunted America- Patricia Limerick- NOTES


-        “immerse yourself in the disposition of any one group, and clarity dissolves”…” In this disorienting stuff, neither victim nor villain came with constant labeling”.

-        Research Question: “ By remembering these questions, what do we gain besides a revival and restoration of misery?”

-        There are 12 patterns: by finding these patterns, she is trying to find the truth in all the muddled information she knows about between the Indians and whites. She does a good job of doing this by first giving the reader a Modac story, then the pattern.

-        Pattern 1: Defining the villain and victim is difficult b/c cultures became intertwined

  1. Interracial couples
  2. Indians had English guns
  3. Can only distinguish by political loyalty and cultural practice NOT by biological descent

-        Pattern 2: Confusion was often the trigger for war

  1. Arranging peace with totally different goals: expansion of white vs. protection of Indians.
  2. Translating b/w 2 different languages & systems of property and law
  3. White officals thinking certain leaders were “chiefs”= NOT everyone actually agreed within the tribe

-        Pattern 3: 1st acts of violence were accidental:

  1. Accidents because of passion and impulse on both sides
  2. Because of hunger on Indians side
  3. Americans decided to take things in own hands b/c had no trust in army
  4. Heated acts of individuals weighed more than trying to make peace
  5. People punished for the actions of a few ( ex. 9/11..all Muslims were blamed)

-        Pattern 4:  Whites felt as though THEY were the ones who had been mistreated/innocent victims and felt justified in defending themselves

  1. Indians trying to say “get out”- decided to do it through violence
  2. Whites could do whatever they wanted to defend themselves
  3. Moral judgment blurred/ defined

-        Pattern 5: Indians won because amry thought they were too smart for such “primitive creatures”

  1. Finally realized that Indians wars was a serious matter

-        Pattern 6: Indians were on both sides of the conflict

  1. Intertribal conflict occurred long before arrival of Europeans
  2. Individual ambition played an important role

-        Pattern 7: Whites were also disunited

  1. President received conflicting advice
  2. Disorganized army with different ambitions
  3. Greatest division in fighting force= local citizens vs. volunteers
  4. Humanitarians disapproval of the war

-        Pattern 8: Indians knowing landscape was a great advantage- disadvantage for whites

  1. Natives knew terrain
  2. Superiority of technology or civilization did not do much good on battlefield
  3. What we learned from Indian-white war could have been useful for guerrilla warfare in Vietnam

-        Pattern 9: ? Repetition of pattern 8?- not as clear. Maybe that not all whites were “Evil” and had hearts

-        Pattern 10: harder to get out of a war than to start one

  1. Difficult to let the whites recognize Indian surrender
  2. b/c of difference I language and custom
  3. whites wanted to get the most out of the war

-        Pattern 11: by end of war, Indians looked like battered people- not fierce beings

  1. Some whites asked “ was all this really necessary”  and felt regret
  2. BUT we still need to understand that the Indians were active forces in the shaping of history

-        Pattern 12: indian wars were bitter but became displayed as romantique…commercialization of the war

  1. Deep, eye-opening stories became simple popular cultural narratives of simple stories about heroism, adventure, an triumph.
  2. People shouldn’t be celebrating this because it was serious…even now, there is theft of Indian recourses, restrictions on Indian religious freedom, discrimination, etc.

-        Standards and levels of brutality: may seem like things get less brutal by the centuries…this is not true

-        He compares  his own 12 patterns to other sources to show the complexity of the Indian-white wars and that we cannot simplify things

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.


Salma Yehia

Chapter 11


Notes- Conducting Research

-        Primary Sources: provide firsthand knowledge; basic, raw information; including field research; films, works of art, literary works, eyewitness accounts, photographs, news reports, letters, speeches

-         Secondary sources: report on or analyze  the research of others; interpretations of primary sources; reviews, biographies, encyclopedia

-        Scholarly: journal, available through library databases, abstract is on the first page of article; fairly long articles; they cite  sources and provide bibliography

-        popular sources: nonacademic sources; available outside of library; authors are not experts; does not cite

-        best place to start research is at the library- ask specific questions- if don’t have any then you need to do more background research  first

-        consulting general reference works is another good way to get started on a research project; helpful for getting overview, identifying subtopics

-        Encyclopedias: a way to start your research

-        Biographical resources, bibliographies, almanac, yearbooks, atlases

-        Book Indexes: help locate complete bibliographical information

-        Periodical indexes: databases or print volumes that hold information about articles published in newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals

-        Observation: b4 conducting any observation, decide exactly what you want to find out, and anticipate what you are likely to see

-        Interviews: determine exact purpose, record subject, date, time and place of interview. Create open ended questions..avoid yes/no questions and vague questions



DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.


Salma Yehia


Notes on “Indians” by Jane Tompkins


-        Tompkins shows us the behind the scenes of researching

-        It is hard to get outside of being bias because of Perspectivism where our bias shapes how we view events and the world

-        “Indians” = bias term- should say native Americans

-        In research it is dangerous to write on what you think you know- we have to move beyond and research other opinions and perspectives

-        Steps for researcher:

  1. Identify own biases
  2. Define research question ( stay open to new questions)
  3. Who are the big names in the field and start with them
  4. The dates/ time period of sources matter

-        Tompkins research question: “if all accounts of events are determined through and through by the observer’s frame of reference, then one will never know, in any given case, what really happened” ( 102)

-        We have to be careful with sources when defining what is FACT and what is OPINION

-        Post-structuralism: a response to structuralism-

-        Post-structuralism grew as a response to structuralism’s perceived assumption that its own system of analysis was somehow essentialist. Post-structuralists hold that in fact even in an examination of underlying structures, a slew of biases introduce themselves, based on the conditioning of the examiner.”



-        Every author’s perspective differs depending on their looking glass whether it be through religion / a certain ideology, economic, or moral.

-        Each source has a fault since each experience has bias judgement or a certain “mission” in writing

-        Relativism: the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception ( wikipidia)

-        ** the historian can never escape the limitations of his or her own position in history and so inevitably gives an account that is an extension of the circumstances from which it springs** ( p 115)

-        “in order to make a moral judgment about something,, you have to know something else first- namely, the facts of the case you’re being called upon to judge

-        “my problem presupposed is that I couldn’t judge because I didn’t know what the facts were” – so you have to break down what is fact and what is opinion

-        “its rather the process of reading so many different approaches to the same phenomenon I became aware  of the differences in attitudes that informed these approaches”-  you learn more from looking @ perspectives than simply looking at facts

-        “ all facts are only facts within a perspective has the effect of emptying statements and their content” ( p 117)




DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Salma Yehia

The “Banking” Concept of Education - Paulo Freire

-        Narrative characteristic of teacher-student relationship: a narrating subject  and patient listening subjects-)

-        This narration creates lifeless contents b/c the teacher talks about reality as if it were predictable  and static  OR b/c they are talking about a topic alien to the kids experiences– “Education is suffering from narration sickness”- p.318

-        Teacher task= “fill” the student with content of his narration- “ Words  are emptied from their concreteness..” then become hollow and alienated

-        Student task= records, memorizes, and repeats the phrases without really understanding the true significance or meaning behind things- memorizing mechanically narrated content

-        Supposedly, the more completely she fills, “ the better a teacher she is”

-        Education becomes an act of depositing- no communication- the teacher makes deposits that the students receive, memorize, and repeat = **Banking Concept of Education**

-        “People are filed away through the lack of creativity, transformation, and knowledge in the misguided system” -top of p. 319

-        “Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other”.

-        In banking concept= knowledge is a gift given by those  who consider themselves knowledgeable to those who they consider know nothing

-        Teacher thinks that him and student are “necessary opposites”

-        Freire is very forceful writer whose ideas are extreme as he blames teachers and compares students to slaves- maybe even lower! He explains through similes and comparisons- he switches from s/he on p. 321  in a confusing way

-        Students= alienated like slaves- they accept their ignorance as justifying teachers existence- but unlike slaves, they never discover that they educate their teacher

-        Banking concept: regards men as adaptable, manageable beings

-        More deposits= less students develop a critical conscious= the more they simply adapt to the world- and they have a fragmented view

-        There are oppressors (p. 320) who care neither  to have the world revealed or to see it transformed- they create a profitable situation for themselves

-        Oppressors interests= “ changing the consciousness of the oppressed , not the situation which oppresses them”

-        The oppressors need not be to integrated and be” beings for others” ( within the banking system) but to be transformed so that they can be “beings for themselves”

-        “humanism concept”?????? p.320

-        Banking approach is dehumanizing – has contradictions about reality

-        The revolutionary educator – her efforts must coincide with the student to engage in critical thinking and to humanize: need to trust in people  and their creative power- they have to be PARTNERS… they have to be equals, you cant assume that one knows more than the other p. 321

-        In banking concept= people IN world instead of WITH the world

-        The educator role is to regulate the way the world “enters into” the students

-        “Only through communication can human life hold meaning” p. 322

-        There has to be authentic thinking – teacher can’t think for her students

-        Necrophily= oppression=driven by desire to transform  the organic into inorganic- to approach life mechanically. Using memory and not experience

-        Even revolutionaries and liberators STILL use the banking concept..one does not liberate by alietnating them ..middle of p.323

-         Authentic Liberation: the process of humanization- is not another deposit to be made in men…those who want to liberate need to reject the banking concept in its entirety and adapt a concept that people are conscious beings need to pose problems of human beings in relation with the world

-        “Problem-Posing” education – intentionally rejects communiques (official announcement) and embodies communications- p. 323 it involves a constant  unveiling of reality p. 324

-        “Consciousness as consciousness of consciousness” – bottom of 323

-        Teacher is taught in dialogue with the students- “authority” is no longer valid- people teach each other – “authority” must be on the side of freedom…pg. 324

-        Students= co-investigators 

-        The  teacher now re-considers her earlier considerations as the students express their own

-        Doxa  ( common knowledge) is gone and true knowledge replaces it- at the level of logos

-        Submersion vs. emergence  and critical intervention of reality

-        Understanding a problem within a  context, not a s a theoritcal question..the comprehension becomes more critical and less alientated

-        ** Consciousness neither precedes the world nor follows it**?? p. 325- all of  this page is very confusing!

-        Problem-Posing Education: people develop their power  to perceive critically the way they exist in the world  with which and in which they find themselves- they see reality as  a process, in transformation- people know that they are INCOMPLETE p. 326

-        to BE you must BECOME p.327

-        Attempting to be more human prevents others from being so..which leads to having more  egotistically dehumanization???????? P.328- this doesn’t make sense!!!!!



DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Ways of Seeing- John Berger

-        1st selection is Chapter 1 from the book which was originally a series on BBC TV.

-        Seeing comes before words

-        Seeing- as a way to establish our world in the surrounding world

-        Relationship b/w what we see and what we know: there is always a gap b/w words and seeing

-        The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe (p.141)

-        To look is a choice; what we see is bough within our reach; to touch  ( a static, limited form of sight) is to situate oneself relative to it

-        Reciprocal nature of vision= mental ( we can be seen from the object if we can see the object)

-        Dialogue= an attempt to explain how, either metaphorically or literally “you see things” and to discover how “HE sees things”

-        Image= sight that is recreated- an appearance that is detached from its place and time- the image outlasts what it represented- it showed how the subject was once seen by people

-        Ways of seeing is reflected in photography or other forms of artworks

-        Images are  more precise and richer than text

-         Learned assumptions about art: beauty, truth, genius, civilization, form, status, taste, etc.

-        History- the past is not a place to live in: it is a well of conclusions from which we draw in order to act.

-        We are deprived  from history that belongs to us when we are prevented from seeing it ??(p.144)- what does that whole phar. Talking about?

-        Frans Hals painting ( Regentesses): each women speaks of human condition  with equal importance; equal clarity from the dark- linked by a pattern- compositional unity- left with unchanging human condition- the penetrating characterizations alsmost seduce us into believeing  that we know the personality traits and even the habits of the men and women portrayed (145)

-         What is it and What is the relevance of Mystification??????? (146 & pages before)

-        We need to avoid mystifying the past

-        Perspective- ( established during the renaissance)  everything is in the eye of the beholder

-        When the camera reproduces a painting, it destroys the uniqueness of the image- so the meanings change- the meaning multiplies  and fragments into many meanings

-        Because of the camera, the painting now travels to the spectator instead of the spectator to the painting (p149)

-        Because of reproduction, the uniqueness in a painting  lies in that it is an “original of a reproduction”- its no longer what the painting contains that is important

-        “work of art”- they are discussed although they were holy relics- bogus religiosity

-        JUST because something is authentic/mysterious does not mean it is BEAUTIFUL

-        ***Information carries no special authority within itself***

-        Images used for different purposes- unlike the orginal work

-        Reproduction isolates a detail of a painting from the whole

-        The meaning of an image is changed according to what one sees beside it or beneath it

-        “Reproduction are used politically and commercially …”????- top of 157

-        NOT saying that orginal works of art are now useless bc reproduced

-        Boards with personal things should be replaced with museams? ( p.157)

-        Innocence can be good but it can be bad bc it means u can be ignorant

-        To whom does the meaning of the art of the past properly belong?to those who can apply it to their own lives or to cultural hierarchy of relic specialists?

-        ANAYLYSIS: This ( above bullet point) related back to percy because he said that we should not rely on specialists or on other things for us to understand things… the dogfish was not simply made to be dissected by scientists- a normal person can examine it and learn just as much but from a newer better perspective… paintings work the same way…the experts explaining it have a set perspective, but for a person seeing it for the 1st time in its ORGINAL context, u may learn much more and it wont be “history” as you can connect it to your modern personal life


DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Mary Louise Pratt Arts – Arts of the Contact Zone

-        When reading this essay, I felt as though I was reading a history book with dense material and terms- Question: was the intended audience students like ourselves or?

-         What is a contact zone in simplest terms? ( we need to understand this in order to understand anything farther in the essay) Contact zones refers to social spaces where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other  in context of  colonialism, slavery, and their aftermaths  as they are lived out in many parts of  the world ….will later use the term to reconsider the models of community that we rely on in teaching and theorizing and that are under challenge today. (p. 487)


-        What is the purpose/ relevance of mentioning Guaman Poma’s Giant letter to Phillip III in the 1st section? ( 486-487) – “ the text is truly a product of the contact zone…it will read very differently  for people in different positions of the contact zone 

-        The letter is written in 2 different languages ( Spanish and Quechua)  and in 2 parts:

  1. Title: New Chronicle – constructed an image of the world, a picture of  a Christian world with Andean instead of Europeans in the center of it, He rewrote Christian history, the story of Adam and Eve

* Pratt call it an  autoethnographic text- text in which people undertake to describe themselves in ways which engage with representations others have made of them

*this sort of text is NOT a form of expression or self-representation???

* The conquered subject is using the conquerors language to show an oppositional representation of the conquerors own speech

  1. Title: Good Government and Justice- Description of colonial society in the Andean region with a passionate criticism of Spanish exploitation and abuse. It ends with an imaginary Q & A in which the king id asking Guaman Poma questions about how to reform the empire

-        The Incas had no system of writing, however they were the only instance of full-blown bureaucratic society built and administered without writing

-        Guaman did not imitate or reproduce, he adopted and interpreted

-        Transculturation (coined by Fernando Ortiz)- process by which members of marginal groups select and invent from materials transmitted by a dominant or metropolitan culture.  The term was used to replace reductive terms such as acculturation and assimilation used to characterize a culture under quest.

-        Transculturation like autoethnography is a phenomenon of the contact zone” (middle of page 491) how is this statement true?

-        On page bottom of 492à top of 493 what is this paragraph trying to get at? What does it mean? What is the connection between this history and the metropolis of the United States?


Contact and Community

-        Languages seen as living in “ speech communities”, they are said to be self-defined and held by a homogenous  grammar shared identically or equally among all group members

-        Benedict Anderson would call this utopian way- this speech community- as “imagined communities”: he says that human communities exist as imagined  entities in which people will never know their fellow members , meet them , or even hear of them, yet they imagine that they are in communion

-        What is an imagined community????

-        Communities are distinguished not by falsity/ genuinely but by the style in which they are imagined.

-        3 features that characterize style in which modern nation is imagined:

  1. Imagined as “limited”-  finite elastic boundaries
  2. Imagined as “sovereign”
  3. Imagined as “fraternal”- people are prepared not to kill but willingness to die

-        European bourgeoisies -  what made them successful= print capitalism- Commercial  circulation of books and invisible networks that would eventually establish the literate elites who ruled the nations

-        Language interaction depends on authority: ex. in Teacher-pupil language, the teacher language is described from entirely the one point of view of the teacher

-        Multiculturalism

-        Important quote/example of contact zone: “ the classroom functioned not like a homogenous group… the range  and kinds of stakes varied widely” ( middle/bottom of p. 496)

-        “safe houses” – refers to social and intellectual spaces where groups can constitute themselves as horizontal,  homogenous, sovereign communities, with shared understandings, temporary protection from legacies of oppression

-         multicultural curricula is too much because a lot of it is neg and shows oppression of man cultures…we sometimes need ethnic or women’s studies, where there is a place for healing and mutual recognition  ( middle phar. P.497)

-        Pedagogical   (informative) arts in the contact zone are IMPORTANT

-        There needs to be ground rules for communication. That go beyond politeness and maintain mutual respect… concept of  CULTURAL MEDIATION

-        Why does she choose to end with the fact that she is thankful for the arts?

-        How do the baseball cards, the letter never sent, language, and her being thankful for the arts all connect together?

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Salma Yehia

Rodriguez and the Achievement of Desire: Reflection



Rodriquez and Miller have very similar points that reading with the grain is not always the best thing a person can do because it can make your success something not fulfilling. The scholarship defines success in a bad way because he/she is a  bad student, a great mimic, collector of thoughts, not a thinker, grows nostalgic. It makes it so that written words make him feel alone, but then he sees looking back that reading isn’t lonely because there is a  felt connection between reader and writer. Books would  supposedly make him educated- so he felt less alone and didn’t fear the silence, therefore he felt like he had to read every single book. Although read hundreds of books, he never had a point of view when reading, he read to acquire a point of view. He used education to remake himself, however we are not exactly sure if that was for the better or worse. There are different resources and advantages/disadvantages in education. So maybe he took education into one extreme. Education is  a nurturing never natural to the person one was before one entered the classroom. There is a very big question of whether or not he ACHIEVED anything that he felt proud of, because even after his “success” , there seems to still be an empty void/ hole lingering in Rodriguez. Maybe the fact that he is writing about this helps him fill this void.  He also describes how the working class never succeeds, unless they are the exception of the scholarship student who is a good student, troubled boy; knows that one chooses to become a student. Choosing to become a student is a very good point, because Rodriguez CHOSE to be the way he was. I think that having different types of students adds another dimension to education. He knew that his success in the classroom was that he couldn’t forget that schooling was changing him and it was separating him from the life he enjoyed before becoming a student. The student needs to find a balance between these two worlds, and the parent needs to be more involved in helping ease the process. Academics versus Intelligence is another topic that Rodriguez hints upon in this essay. Memorizing isn’t always the best, but learning the information and keeping it with you for the rest of your life is more important. ( understanding vs. memorization).

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

His success in The Achievement of Desire- Richard Rodriguez


-        Rodriguez could barely speak English  but concluded his studies in the British Museum

-        Parts of success: Had very good grammar school, siblings good students, parents encouraged him

-        “ scholarship boy”:  unconfident, sad, because prized student – imitative  and unoriginal pupil- anxious and eager to learn

-        He would hide with his books , obsessed never wanted to let go of them

-        He knew that his success in the classroom was that he couldn’t forget that schooling was changing him and it was separating him from  the life he enjoyed before becoming a student

-        Richard Hoggart’s “ The Uses of Literacy”:  describes scholarship boy who must move between environments  ( cultural differences in home vs school)

-        Working-class student is the least prepared for the adjustment of the classroom vs home habits like studying in quite atmosphere

-        Working class never succeeds, unless they are the exception of the scholarship student:good student, troubled boy; knows that one chooses to become a student

-        He cannot afford to admire his parents; embarrassed that they aren’t as educated as him

-        Studying more than hanging out with family..although working class= family oriented

-        His father teased him for having “soft hands” because he did labor work – his mom thinks it will give him opportunity for better jobs

-        Parents made success better: they paid tuition they couldn’t afford and spoke English to them

-        big ideas” going to his head

-        Connection between reading and learning

-        Written words made him feel alone.. but then felt connection between reader and writer

-        books would make him educated- so he felt less alone and didn’t fear the silence

-        felt like he had to read every single book

-        although read hundreds of books, he never had a point of view when reading…he read to acquire a point of view

-        he used education to remake himself

-        scholarship boy: bad student, a great mimic, collector of thoughts, not a thinker, grows nostalgic

-        education: a nurturing never natural to the person one was before one entered the classroom.

-        He achieved the end of education???




DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Main argument:  writing and reading can instill emotions that further enable an individual to become confident enough to act upon the feelings

-        It is not that having faith in books is bad but: having too much trust in an author or in a book is not good because you should formulate your own ideas and go beyond your comfort level of finding books that “agree with you” ( 430-432)…that’s when u begin mistaking passion for insight

-         writing change idle thoughts into viable plans for sustainable action (p. 442)

*** writing stirs about feels and emotions if written to a well enough extent… (writing could be used to extend and articulate ones sense of despair and ones sense of superiority [p..?]****

-        “ who mcandless is and what he became of him are, it turns out, immediately connected to the young mans approach to reading- both of what he chose to read and  how he chose to read it” ( middle of 429) 

-        “ reading , writing, talking..”.. “bent to serve a purpose” pg. 423

-        Don’t live in the books, just understand them

-        Is reading or writing really important/helpful when: the gap between the rich and poor is still growing and, and do the important things are occurring……by reading and writing  people can actually fix the problem, educating the public and writing to public officials

-        No matter what type of reading or writing, can still instill emotions..even if its because u don’t agree with what the book says

-        No one



Technology and modernity move but the individual can’t move as fast with it so man becomes lonely and cannot connect with the world.

Sociological imagination

Tech: isolates fact vs. fiction

-        Realm is vast , can create world of imagination

-        No one can read it all

-        Do we actually connect

-        School not pace with tech… high irrelevance




DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

The Dark Night of the Soul

-         In the 1st paragraph, it describes very specific  details of the event; using a listing technique

-        Columbine High School  shootings

-        Social cataclysm: 1. Why does this happen? who’s to blame? 2. There is an appeal to some greater authority to assist to  prevent further upheavals in the future.

-        Technology ( isolates & fact vs. fiction), schools, and family is blamed

-        Killings were misguided grab for immortality by the boys vs. feeling of helplessness because of school

-        Reading, writing, talking…”bent to serve any purpose” p.423

-        Is reading and writing really helpful when: the gap between the rich and poor is still growing, and other important things are occurring.

-        How-in its limited ways- might reading and writing be made to matter in this new world that’s always changing

-        Middle of p.425…..?????????

-        This essay is very confusing because it quotes books and authors whom quote other authors…then compares characters in novels to try to make his point... I think…!!!

-        Random acts of violence

-        “ how can I ever play the omniscient , the all-knowing, when I don’t know anything” p.427

-        Information makes you become MORE mortal; its telling you to stop saying hi, and to start saying bye. P.427

-        “who  McCandless is and what becomes of him are, it turns out, intimately  connected to the young man’s approach to reading- both what he chose to read and how he chose to read it” middle of p.429

-        The essay does not focus on the “main” debates that arise from the novels/essays/stories he mentions but always is sticking to his main argument about the importance of reading and writing

-        ITS not that having faith in books is bad but:  Having too much trust in an author or in a book is not good because you should formulate your own ideas and go beyond your “comfort level” of finding books that “agree with you” (430-431)

-        Mistaking passion for insight

-        How does the mention of Descartes further or establish the essays argument about the importance of reading and writing?

-        A memoir helps  make sense of the past, and that a better future is possible, can produce forgiveness

-        The whole time, the author was talking about MEMOIRS

-        These people knew that writing could be used to extend and articulate ones sense of despair and ones sense of superiority.

-        All these writers wanted fame? This this the conclusion that the author thought of..is that the point of his argumentation?

-        Can writing change idle thoughts into viable plans for sustainable action? P.442




DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

9/6/11    In Key Words p. 68-73 & 132-137

“Essay”- Essays in the past were:

-        Fairly short .

-        Written in an afternoon

-        only required a topic of some kind/ some sort of focus

-         a style of writing

-        Some intelligence and humor

-        never too serious

-         the whole thing came to a quick end.

-        The essayist took risks, simply created a context for the reader

-         “essay-as-exploration”

-         A good academic essay triggers a intellectual rush that comes from thinking about ideas. This can deeply connect in a relevant way to the way we live our lives…. ( common with college vs. free form)

-        an essay should help provide a slightly  new way of perceiving the world.



-        Reading helps open the world for u

-         it changes the way you think about things

-         sort of enters you into this adultish world of freedom

-        however, reading analytically is very different because you have to return to it to be able to understand it, to compare, and unpack it.

-        There isn’t one way to read..can be passive vs. active

-        Reading is not linear ( 134) sampling contents of essay.. gaging level of interest. doesn’t work in a single gulp.

-        reading is writing and writing is reading…amount we put into reading determines the amount we get out.

-        Tracing main arg.

Ways of Reading


-        people can read the same book, but then interpret the reading in many different ways, all of which could be persuading.

-        Reading can be the occasion for you to put things together

-        Reading can help you notice different themes or ideas

-        To follow the writers secrets ends while simultaneously following your own

-        Writing allows you to be self-critical

-        Reading with the grain vs. reading against….best way is a mix of both.

-        Writing allows you to revise “re-vision”- “re-seeing”, which in return makes you a better reader.

-        Writing lets you see what sort of reader you are; to examine the consequences in the choices you have made.

-        Main ideas- a way to learn how to imagine and anticipate the values and habits of a particular group

-        Many essays in the book (ex Percy’s)  are not about the sum of its individual parts, but are what the reader make it. (p.7)

-        The first thing to do is put the parts that make the matter more personal, review what you recall, then go back to places where notes were made, or stuck in your memory.

-        The readings are not about what they mean to others ( those who have already decided what it means), but what they mean to you.

-        Take command of complex material ..” read as though it made sense and perhaps it will.”

-        Little is gained if u find one “Cheesy” moral to the complex essay like “ be yourself” or “stand up on your own two feet”

-        Reading with the gran, “ giving themselves to the essay” and see the world in someone elses terms.

-        Reading against the grain: read critically, to turn your back, different ways of understanding the essay that aren’t obvious

-        A lot of the essyas provide examples of going against the grain of common sense or common language.

-        Work through a difficult text by writing!!!!

-        Ignore the things you don’t understand..and work with the things that you do



DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.